Airpollution & Covid Transmission

PM & COVID

Air is a vehicle through which microbial agents can move around the environment. Plants and cellular fragments, bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, and spores can be components of the bioaerosol.A positive correlation has been observed between the spread of the virus and air pollution, one of the greatest challenges of our millennium. COVID-19 could have an air transmission and atmospheric particulate matter (PM) could create a suitable environment for transporting the virus at greater distances than those considered for close contact. Moreover, PM induces inflammation in lung cells and exposure to PM could increase the susceptibility and severity of the COVID-19 patient symptoms. The new coronavirus has been shown to trigger an inflammatory storm that would be sustained in the case of pre-exposure to polluting agents.Atmospheric PM would function as a carrier, or as a transport vector, for many viruses. Thus, PM may have increased the effectiveness of the virus spread in the aerosol as it creates a microenvironment suitable for its persistence .PM10 and PM2.5 can be inhaled and, in addition to the polluting particles, the associated microorganisms are inhaled, too. Recent studies also indicate that microbial community composition and concentration are significantly affected by particle concentration and dimension .The particles could also act as carriers, which have complex adsorption and toxicity effects on bacteria .Certain particle components are also available as nutrition for bacteria and the toxic effect dominates in heavy pollution.In addition, inhalation transports the particles deep into the lungs, especially those smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5 and UFPs), and this allows the virus to develop within the respiratory tract and to cause infections.Sequences of several pathogens including viral particles (0.1% in both PM10 and PM2.5) were identified.Concerning the effect of PM pollution and the spread of viruses in the population, several recent studies have analyzed whether the different areas of the world with a high and rapid increase in COVID-19’s contagion were correlated to a greater level of air pollution. At present, there are three world areas where there has been a high number of people infected by COVID-19: China, where the pandemic started; Italy; and the USA, and the link between these countries is the very high level of air pollutants. This is the reason that recent studies have focused on these areas to find a possible correlation in air pollution and COVID-19’s contagion.Regular upper airway cleansing , steaming , gargling and nasal wash /neti pot can help people to avoid these infections during this time in Delhi NCR. Stubble burning coupled with autumn pollens, low air speed and sudden drop in temperature can aggravate upper airway and lower air way sensitivity. Asthmatics , COPD, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, cardiacs and diabetic patients are very vulnerable. It is must for them to follow upper airway cleansing, adjusting their inhaler dosage and go for yearly flu and pneumococcal vaccination.

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